For short quotations (less than 40 words):
A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the sentence.
For long quotations (more than 40 words):
Longer quotations should be set apart from the surrounding text, without quotation marks, in block format, indented five spaces from the left margin, and double spaced.

If the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second paragraph about 1/2 inch (5 spaces).

Quotations within a quotation:
In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote. For shorter quotations, use single quotation marks.
Material removed from a quotation:
Sometimes it is necessary, for brevity, to remove a portion of a paragraph.

Use an ellipsis to indicate that a portion of the quotation has been omitted: three periods with spaces before and after when the words have been omitted in the middle of a sentence, four periods (with spaces before and after) when the end of a sentence has been left out.

Material inserted into the quotation:
Sometimes it is necessary, for clarity, to insert a word into a direct quotation.

Use square brackets [like this] to highlight words that have been added to the quotation by someone other than the original author.

Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited.


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